California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger met with Williams to help decide whether the sentence should be commuted to life in prison. His co-author and spokeswoman, Barbara Cottman Becnel, says she will continue the fight to prove Williams' innocence.
Williams and a friend created the "Crips" gang and would eventually be arrested and convicted of murder associated with the gang's activity. In the 1980s the Crips became more focused on drugs, especially crack cocaine, and the gang eventually formed alliances with Mexican cartels.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles: A Memoir 2004 was published. Immersed in a culture of violence and drugs and without a strict parental influence, Williams grew up idolizing criminals and "mimicking pimps and drug dealers.
Gang , a group of persons, usually youths, who share a common identity and who generally engage in criminal behaviour. Gang violence and activity exploded in Los Angeles and around the country in the 1980s. Williams received a letter from President George W. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.
Don't Tell Me! Matt Gilligan. Seeking to address the dearth of black characters….
View More. December 13, 2005 12: The appeals panel urged the judge to consider commuting Williams' death sentence to life behind bars, citing the former gang member's efforts toward anti-gang education.
With his death sentence close at hand, Williams petitioned again for clemency in 2005. Williams' mother, who was only 17 at the time of his birth, was left to care for Williams alone after his father abandoned the family.
Williams later recalled the affluent-looking South Central neighborhood where they rented their first apartment as "a shiny red apple rotting away at the core. The Arsenic Gang: In 2004, Williams helped create the Tookie Protocol For Peace, a peace agreement for one of the deadliest and most infamous gang wars in the country between the Crips and their rival, the Bloods.