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The cells of the multicellular organisms harbor both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Blood 112, 3671—3678 2008.
NCG 5. Numerous studies have strongly suggested its association with higher recurrence risk in early-stage breast cancer and, to a lesser extent, increased resistance to hormonal therapy perhaps more so with tamoxifen than with aromatase inhibitors , resistance to nonanthracycline therapy, enhanced sensitivity to doxorubicin, and, in some series, to taxane-based therapy [ 14 ].
Furthermore, surrogate markers, such as gene or protein induction after therapy, may allow for much more rapid screening and testing of new drugs. Ester Kwon from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for critical reading, revising, and providing suggestions of the manuscript, and the other members of Wang Lab for helpful discussion.
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How is a normal cell transformed into a cancerous cell?